If you go to Scandinavia you will find yourself in the middle of the Viking Age.
You might not see it at first, maybe even shake your head and think “nonsense – that was a long time ago”.
Slowly you will start noticing the slightly odd behaviour, the weird names and the ever present Iron Age grave mounts.
You will start seeing Mjölnir, Jǫrmungandr, Yggdrasil and fuþart everywhere. Suddenly you can’t stop seeing it. Sooner or later it will dawn on you: It’s not over yet.
Relax. We don’t desecrate alters, burn monasteries and enslave monks anymore. We have found more subtle ways to express our general lack of consideration.
A defining part of Viking culture is a fair amount of insensitivity and a merciless rationality.
If public hugging and kissing, breastfeeding and giraffe autopsies are too much for you, and religious satire makes you angry, you will consider us barbaric.
Yet you will find the Scandinavian countries at the top of the list whenever development is ranked; happiness, education, equality, atheism, healthcare, work-life-balance, social security and sustainable energy.
The World Economic Forum and United Nations annual reports looks suspiciously like Scandinavian fanmail.
We don’t discriminate by innate characteristics (such as gender, skin colour or sexual orientation), while choices (faiths and opinions) are always subject to debate and ridicule, in words and artistic expressions.
Perhaps the most defining ability of Vikings is adaptability, which is how we transitioned from forn siðr through Christianity to atheism, from fuþark to the latin alphabet, and from villains to virtue, without losing our specific character on the journey.
It happens, once in a while, some actually get offended by our lack of consideration. Rest assured you are welcome to burn our flag, the bible and constitution, and even a picture of the queen.
No harm done, as noone is physically inconvened.
All things considered, we are still Vikings.
Viking is not an ethnicity, a religion or a membership club. It’s something subtle and indefinable in the culture and the landscape, and it affects us; even those whose grandparents immigrated from somewhere else, and the ones whose knowledge of history is shockingly deficient and flawed.
My youngest daughter’s daycare center was named Midgårðen, her classmates had names like Erik, Harald and Astrið, and she learned what I have learned, and what her children will learn: The thunder is Þhórr acting out with his hammer, Mjölnir.
She names everything, like her iPhone, bicycle, potted plants and jewelry.
Her grandmother used to wear a Mjölnir necklace, even to church. Not to provoke, but it’s so common here, nobody gives it a second thought.
Grandma’s dead now, so we will light candles in front of a runestone.
In December 2021 I was invited to make an exhibition in the centre of Copenhagen, with the title “Imagine Modern Vikings”.
The idea was to imagine what Denmark would have looked like, had the Iron Age Vikings been more culturally conservative.
A lot of research and some photoshopping. The more research we made, the more pointless it became.
Being conservative would have been self-contradictory for an Iron Age Scandinavian. After all their success was driven by plasticity.
You don’t have to imagine modern Vikings; just look around. It’s right here, right now.
Only a few Scandinavians will put “Viking” on their business card or Facebook profile, but they will still refer to Kristmesse (Christmas) as “Jul”, and talk about Þórr when they hear the thunder.
🇩🇰 🇳🇴 🇸🇪 🇮🇸 🇦🇽 🇫🇴 🇫🇮
The Christian cross dominates all the Scandinavian flags, but you will not find many believers. Neither will you find any other countries with a higher percentage of female and/or homosexual priests.
Obviously we don’t actually believe in Æsir and trolls either, but they are – nevertheless – everywhere, all the time.
WHAT VIKINGS ARE NOT
Vikings were – and are – not racists.
Our ancestors in the Iron Age were completely clueless about ethnicity.
(Read more here).
Vikings are not anti-Christian.
For most of the historical Viking Age most Vikings were Christians.
Now most are atheist.
Vikings are not considerate of opinions and beliefs.
Your thoughts and your superstitions are not above criticism and ridicule.
We are not against Jesus, Muhammad or Buddha, but we reserve the right to make fun of them.
Vikings are not eager to die in honor.
Death is something we avoid as long as it makes sense.
Vikings are not necessarily tattooed.
In the historical Viking Age, Rus Vikings are described as tattooed with floral patterns, while Danes have never been described as tattooed at all.
In recent years, tattoos have become very popular with Viking-inspired motifs, Vegvisir, runes, etc.
Not all Blondes.
According to DNA researchers, there are probably more blonde Scandinavians now than in the historical Viking Age.
Iron Age Vikings were hyper violent in a hyper violent age.
Often fear would make potential victims pay to escape.
It's not a simple story…
Read the book Vikingology to get all the details.
According to Lene Melheim from the Museum of Cultural History in Oslo the Viking Age began 2500 years ago.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it began 8th of June 793 AD, with the attack on Lindisfarne monastery.
In reality the term “Viking Age” didn’t exist until 1873, where it appeared on the cover of the booklet ”De Danskes Kultur i Vikingetiden” (“The Dane’s Culture in the Viking Age”) by archaeologist, historian and politician Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae.
Since all of the Scandinavian countries had lost wars and territory within the last decade, there was a craving for renewed national pride, and the concept spread like wildfire, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
So the Viking Age started 500 BC, 790 AD or never; you decide for yourself.
“Viking” is a label we have trumped up in retrospect, and altered over the years.
The Iron Age Vikings rarely referred to themselves as “Vikings”, and they didn’t have a clue they were living in the “Viking Age”.
There are two different spellings found in late Iron Age Scandinavia: “Vikingu” and “Vikingr”.
The first is a verb, an action, like in the runestone that reads “He died in Vikingu on the western route.” [VG 61]
The second is a noun, a title, like the runestone that reads “Tóki the Vikingr, raised the stone (…)” [SM 10]
The word appears again in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, which states “The Norsemen came as Vikings”.
Today “Viking” simply means Scandinavian.
Vikings were forn siðr (“the old ways”, pagan) until c. 1350, but started converting to Christianity in c. 700, so there’s an overlapping transition period of c. 650 years.
Presently most are members of the national Lutheran church, for traditional reasons, but de facto atheists.
There’s only a very small minority of official forn siðr members, but Asatro (Norse paganism) is officially recognised as a religion in all Scandinavian countries.
As far back as we can trace Scandinavians have been interacting with Sámis, Frisians, Anglo-Saxons, Finns, Slavs etc., and from around year 750 we have numerous historical accounts of trading, raiding, slaving, travels, expeditions, and immigration. The world came to Scandinavia, and the Vikings came to the world.
That’s what we call “The Great Norse Expansion”.
Most of the chronicles and sagas are highly unreliable as accounts of actual events and people, but they give us undeniable insight into alliances, conflicts and relations.
Reading the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles is just as enlightening as reading any English tabloid today; a few facts, lots of opinions and mostly bullshit.
We know for a fact that three things in particular made the Vikings highly successful in a rapidly changing world, in the late Iron Age and early medieval times.
With the rise of great empires surrounding Scandinavia, the Vikings changed from raiders to empire builders, with the North Sea Empire in the west and Kievan Rus in the East.
The Viking countries officially became Christian, while expeditions went as far as Vinland (L’Anse aux Meadows in present day Canada), and Baghdad in the Abbasid caliphate.
Some would say the Viking Age ended with Christianity, some would say it ended with the collapse of the Viking empires, and some would say it never ended.
In the Anglo-centric narrative it ended on 25th of September 1066, at the battle of Stamford Bridge, but outside of England is was far from over.
Now the weekdays are named after Norse deities, you decorate for Christmas with fir and fruit in honor of the nature spirits, and you use old Norse words like “wife”, “knife”, “son”, “daughter”, “church” and a thousand more.
Get the full story – Read the book “Vikingology”
Get the answers to all your questions, get the full story and all the little details that paints the entire picture.
“Vikingology” is the book you must have on your nightstand.
In bookstores from fall 2023.
220 pages ı Paperback: DKK 149,- ı E-book: DKK 79,-
In 2021 I was invited to create an exhibition in the pedestrian street in Copenhagen, Denmark, called “Imagine Modern Vikings”.
The purpose was to explore what would have happened if Vikings, in the late Iron Age, had been more culturally conservative.
We would perhaps have kept the forn siðr (pagan ways), the fuþark (runes), and maybe a few extra design features, but that’s basically it.
After all adaptability is the key factor that made the Vikings prevail.
During the research and design phase, we came to the conclusion that it is still here, it’s everywhere around us, and it’s undeniably in our Scandinavian identity.
The exhibition was sponsored by Jorcks Ejendomme.
All of the Arabian peninsula, northern Egypt and northern African coastal area, Iraq, Iran and southern Turkey 750–1258 and 1261–1517.
711-1492 the Islamic state covering the Iberian peninsula (present day Spain and Portugal).
The homes of the Light elfs (Alfheim) and the Dark elfs/dwarfs (Svartalfheim).
Annals of Saint Bertin. Practical annual reports of raids carried out by various Viking groups from Scandinavia in the Frankish areas, plundering Carolingian monasteries and episcopal cities 830-882.
The moderne Scandinavian word for the Norse religion (forn siðr).
Old English epic poem consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines. It is one of the most important and most often translated works of Old English literature. The only certain dating is for the manuscript, which was produced between 975 and 1025.
The story is set in pagan Scandinavia in the 6th century.
Beowulf, a hero of the Gautar, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, the king of the Danes, whose mead hall in Heorot has been under attack by the monster Grendel. After Beowulf slays him, Grendel’s mother attacks the hall and is then defeated. Victorious, Beowulf goes home to Gautarland and becomes king of the Gautar (see that).
Fifty years later, Beowulf defeats a dragon, but is mortally wounded in the battle.
After his death, his attendants cremate his body and erect a barrow on a headland in his memory.
Bifrost is the invisible bridge that connects the nine worlds. It will be visible when the rain is followed by sunshine, as the rainbow.
Important Viking city, close to present day Stockholm.
According to some stories it is the execution method of cutting through the skin and the flesh along the spine with a knife, separating the ribs from the spine with an axe, draw the ribcage apart, and spread out the lungs to resemble eagle wings, while the person is still alive. This is disputed, as other sources claim that blood eagle simply means leaving the dead face down on the battlefield, and let the scavenger birds eat through the back.
Sacrifice, prayer or worship.
Also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, the continuation of the Roman Empire primarily in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople.
It survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist until the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire remained the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in the Mediterranean world. Its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire and to themselves as Romans.
At its height it consisted of present day southern Italy, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Palestine, and northern Egypt. Vikings never conquered the capital Miklagård (old Norse name for Constantinople), but managed to besiege it so successfully that favourable trade agreements were made, and the emperor later formed the famous Varangian Guard (see that).
Kievan Rus (see that) exported fur, amber, steel and especially slaves in large quantities to the Byzantine Empire.
“Protection money”, paying Danes to go away, in order not to be subject to a massacre.
The Danelaw, also known as the Danelagh.
The part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway; about 80% of present day England and a small part of Scotland.
Confederacy under the Kingdom of Denmark from the invasion of the Great Heathen Army into England in the year 865 until 1002 – the St. Brice’s Day massacre of the Danes (see that).
The people in Denmark, Norway and southern Sweden.
Fimbulvintr is the harsh winter that precedes the end of the world – Ragnarok – and ends all life on Earth.
In 536 AD two major volcanic eruptions created a global period of cooling, often referred to as “three years without summer”. The global death toll was enormous, and the event is now thought to be the origin of the myth of Fimbulvintr.
“Old Ways”. A description of Norse paganism, that didn’t have a name.
Also see “Neo-Paganism”.
“Old story metre”. The Norse poets tended to break up their verses into stanzas of from two to eight lines (or more).
The Norse poets tended to make each line a complete syntactic unit.
Old Norse name for Kievan Rus (see that).
A large North Germanic tribe who inhabited Götaland (“land of the Gautars”) in present day southern Sweden from antiquity until the late Middle Ages.
Much like the Christian and Muslim heaven, Gimle is the world where all good humans and Gods will be welcomed after Ragnarok.
It’s a place of peace and tranquillity.
A North Germanic tribe inhabiting the island of Gotland.
Farm, Estate or even Land.
Important Viking city in southern Denmark.
Raided and burned in 1049 by Haraldr “Harðráði” Sigurðarson (Harald Hårderåde).
Viking age board game, sometimes referred to as “Viking Chess”.
Island in an urban environment. Known from e.g. Stockholm. Most islands in Scandinavian cities are named Holm-something.
Manhattan is actually a Holm, just like Hong Kong Island…
A duel in a confined space (see “Holm”). At least in theory, anyone offended could challenge the other party to holmganga regardless of their differences in social status. This could be a matter of honor, ownership or property, demand of restitution of debt or legal disagreement.
Novgorod (now Velikij Novgorod) in present day Russia. The first major city in the Rus empire (see Kievan Rus).
“The new way” – Christianity.
York. Most important city in Danelagen (see that).
In English sometimes spelled “Yule”. Heathen celebration of the winter solstice, originally with very fluctuating dates, guided by the moon calendar.
When the Vikings became (somewhat) Christian the date was fixed on December 24th, as it merged with the Christian Christmas celebration (date aligned with the Roman Saturnalia).
The word – and many traditions – are still used in Scandinavia.
A group of giant monsters in the Norse religion, today used in Swedish as “much”, “large” or “a lot”.
The Rus empire in parts of present day Estonia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Balkan.
Also known as Kiev or Kijev.
The capital city of the Kievan Rus empire.
Presently the capital of Ukraine.
Old Norse alternative name for Kyiv (see that).
Old Norse name for Constantinople (or Byzans), present day Istanbul.
Þórr’s magic hammer that will never miss a target, and will return to his hand after being thrown.
In the Iron Age used by many pagans in necklaces, in much the same way as Christians used the cross; for protection and identification.
Today used by many for traditional reasons.
In Scandinavia Neo-Paganism is the updated continuation of the forn siðr (“the old ways”). It is practiced in many different ways, but emphasis is often on conservation of history and traditions, healthy diet, respect for animals and nature, respects for the elders, focus on family, focus on women’s rights (as opposed to Christianity, Islam and Hinduism), and hospitality. Often it can be seen as a mix of ancient world views with modern spirituality and respect for human rights and nature conservation.
Villain or “without honor”. Often outlaw (Skóggangr or útlagi).
A Nisse (Danish) or Tomte (Swedish) is a supernatural being that lives on every farm. They can be helpful or annoying, depending on how you treat them.
They are small, often described as about 40 cm, and the usual descriptions of their appearance has inspired the garden gnome.
They hide as best as they can, and hate to be spotted by humans.
Northern / Scandinavian. Not to be confused with Norwegian.
The Norse myths, legends and sagas, mainly about Æsir and Vanir.
The North Sea Empire, also known as the Anglo-Scandinavian Empire, was the personal union of the kingdoms of England, Denmark and Norway for most of the period between 1013 and 1042.
The first king to unite all three kingdoms was Sveinn “tjúguskegg” Haraldsson (Sweyn Forkbeard), king of Denmark since 986 and of Norway since 1000, when he conquered England in 1013.
He died in the following year, and his realm was divided.
His son Knútr “Ínn ríki” Sveinsson (Cnut the Great) acquired England in 1016, Denmark in 1018 and Norway in 1028.
Óðinn (“Odin”, “Oden” or ”Woden”) is the main Æsir, according to most traditions.
He is somehow the originator of all the other Æsir, and therefore sometimes referred to as the “Allfather”.
Other nicknames are “The Tall One” and “The One Eyed”.
The old Norse word for snake or serpent, both real and mythological. Mythologically it has in modern times been translated to dragon, not to be confused with winged fire spewing dragons in other mythologies. Mainly known from the “Miðgarðsormr” or”Jǫrmungandr” (the Midgård snake).
A large group of tribes living around the Dnieper and Volga rivers, north of the Black Sea. Some of these tribes became part of the Kievan Rus empire, while others remained a thread to the empire.
Poetry collection depicting religious myths and fables. Written between 800 and 1000 in Norway and Iceland.
Also known as “Snorri’s Edda”, one of the primary sources to knowledge about the Norse religion and myths, though written 200 years after the end of the (English) Viking Age, and in a Christian context.
The end of the world, where good will fight evil, and everybody dies – Æsir, Vanir and humans.
After Ragnarok the Gimle will appear. (see that)
City in Denmark, situated in the bottom of a fjord, west of present day Copenhagen.
A number of Viking Ships were sunk in the Fjord to prevent attack. These ships are now in museum.
A group of Svea (see that) occupying parts of present day Estonia, Russia, Ukraine and Balkan.
Sweden is today known as “Ruotsi” in Finnish, and “Rootsi” in Estonian.
A Persianate Sunni Muslim empire in present day Persia (Iran) and Central Asia, from 819 to 999.
The traditionally Sámi-speaking people inhabiting the region of Sápmi, which today encompasses large northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and of the Kola Peninsula in Russia.
The region of Sápmi was formerly known as Lapland, and the Sámi have historically been known as Lapps or Laplanders, but these terms are regarded as offensive by the Sámi.
Petroglyphs and archaeological findings related to the Sámi people, dating from about 10,000 BC can be found in the Scandinavian peninsula, close to and above the polar circle.
In Norway, Sweden and Finland Sámis today have limited independency on their areas, mainly north of the polar circle. Many still lives as semi-nomadic reindeer herders.
Magic and fortune-telling; the practice of seiðr is believed to be a form of magic which is related to both the telling and the shaping of the future. Practitioners are known to have been carrying a magical walking stick (which over time may have inspired to magic wands, as in Harry Potter), drums, and small engraved figures or dice.
An old Norse name for the Islamic world.
Female Viking warrior.
Poet and/or storyteller, in some cases even singer. Also see Fornyrðislag.
“Weaklings”/”Cowards”; the Viking’s name for the indigenous people in Vinland (in present day Canada).
Presumably Haudenosaunee (Iroquois).
The ethnic groups in present day eastern Europe who have involuntarily given name to slave/slavery.
The St. Brice’s Day massacre, that occurred 13th November 1002, was the mass killing of all Danes in England, ordered by King Æthelred the Unready in response to a perceived threat to his life.
A North Germanic tribe who inhabited Svealand, around Lake Mäleren (“land of the Swedes”), in central Sweden and one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with Gautar and Gotar. They had their tribal centre in Gamla Uppsala. (Also see Rus and Varangian).
Þórr (“Thor” or “Tor”) is the Æsir for humans, and a son of Óðinn.
Þórr’s most priced possession is no doubt his magical war hammer, Mjölnír (see that).
Þórr is the new kid on the block in Norse mythology, as there are no signs of him in archeological digs from the bronze age.
Trolls are a kind of jætter that are exiled from Jotunheim, and live in Midgård. They seek solitude and can be dangerous if disturbed.
When Danes say something is “træls” it means it’s slavelike; hard work or unpleasant.
A group of deities in forn siðr.
In modern popular culture it’s common to hear Vikings longing to go to Valhal, almost like the ultimate paradise.
That is a misunderstanding.
The best and most courageous warriors will be hand-picked by Freyja for Folkvang.
The rest of them will go to Valhal.
Those who lived and died insignificant will oftenly go to Hel, a dark and dull place where nothing happens (not to be confused with Hell, where one is punished and burned. That’s a different religion.)
Some sagas even tell of Niflheim, that might be an extension to Hel, where everything is frozen.
Viking Guard, an army of Rus (see that) Viking mercenaries in the service of the Byzantine Emperor.
Old Norse: Væringjar. Svea (see that)/Rus (see that) Viking conquerors, traders and settlers, mostly from present day Sweden.
The Varangians settled in the territories of modern day Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and in the 9th century, they founded the medieval state of Kievan Rus (see that).
They also formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard (see that).
The Vegvisir (The Guide) is a magical symbol intended to help the bearer find their way home. The symbol is attested in the Huld Manuscript, collected in Iceland by Geir Vigfusson in 1860, and does not have any earlier attestations.
It’s very popular as a tattoo motif among modern Vikings, though.
L’Anse aux Meadows in present day Canada. Maybe all of Gulf of Saint Lawrence.
The Viking’s name for Jesus Christ (“Hvítakristr”). Probably because new converts were obligated to wear white clothes a week after being baptised, but we don’t know for sure.
English translation of Vinland (see that).
Female shaman. Many years after the introduction of Christianity people would still consult a Völve, and when the church got sick and tired of the competition the witch-hunts in Scandinavia began (c. 1530).
Also read “Seiðr”.
Danish Minister of Church and Culture Ane Halsboe-Jørgensen as Völve.
The world tree.
In pre-modern times, before the light pollution, you could see the canopy in the sky at night (as the Milky Way).
A group of deities in forn siðr.
Meet the Vikings online and in real life.
Some of these pages have an English language page, while others might need to be Google translated.
Not all letters existed in the rune alphabets so some letters might share a rune.
To translate write phonetically: Michael = Mikal = ᛗᛁᚲᚨᛚ
There are several Latin to Runic translators online, like valhyr.com.
Danish and Norwegian alphabet (c. 900 AD – present day)
Swedish alphabet (c. 900 AD – present day)
Icelandic alphabet (c. 900 AD – present day)
Ä/Æ/ä/æ = Like E in “Elf”.
Ö/Ø/ö/ø = Pronounced almost like the Ea in “Earth”.
Å/å = Almost like Oa “Oar”. (In Danish aa can substitute å, like Aarhus = Århus)
Ð / ð = Soft D, almost like TH in “Heathen” (tip of tongue behind front teeth).
Þ/ þ = Soft T, like Th in “thing” (Þorvald ≈ Thorvald) (tip of tongue below front teeth).
Note that there are huge overlaps in use, and all have undergone changes over the years.
In Pireus, southern Greece, some guys felt like carving runes into a lion statue. Unfortunately the text is hard to read, now, a thousand years later:
“… they cut, the troops men … but in this harbour the men cut runes in memory of Haursi, a … vigorous husbandman … Swedes arranged this on the lion … He fell before he could gain payment.
Valiant men carved the runes …
Ásmundr carved … the runes, they Áskell … Þorleifr … and …”
In Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, three pieces of grafitti have been found.
You can get acquainted with Adam of Bremen, Ahmad Ibn Fadlan, Bjarni Herjólfsson, Björn Járnsíða, Carl Emil Doepler, Eiríkur “Rauði” Þorvaldsson, Flóki Vilgerðarson, Freydís Eiríksdóttir, Haraldr “Blótan” Gormsson, Haraldr “harðráði” Sigurðarson, Haraldr Hárfagri, Helga of Kyiv, Helgi the Wise, Hrólfr, Hrøríkr, Igor of kiev, Ingvarr Hrøríkrsson, Ívarr “Hinn Beinlausi” Ragnarsson, Knútr “Ínn ríki” Sveinsson, Lagerþa, Leifur “Heppni” Eiríksson, Naddoðr, Poppo, Ragnarr Loþbrók, Saxo Grammaticus, Snorri Sturluson, Snøfrid Svåsedottir, Sturla Þórðarson, Sveinald Ingvarsson, Sveinn “tjúguskegg” Haraldsson, Svend Estridsen, Valdamarr Sveinaldsson, Yngvarr víðförli and Ælla of Northumbria, find them by names you probably know better, and read their stories in the book “Vikingology”.
|536||Two major volcanic eruptions created a global period of cooling, often referred to as “three years without summer”. The global death toll was enormous, and the event is now thought to be the origin of the myth of Fimbulvintr.|
|789||First recorded Viking raid in England (Dorset)|
|795||First recorded Viking raid in Ireland|
|795||First recorded Viking raid in Scotland|
|800||First Dane Viking settelement in Ireland, in Wexford|
|820||First recorded Viking raid in France|
|841||Dane Vikings founding Dublin|
|844||Dane Vikings raid Seville in Al-Andalus (not succesfully)|
|845||Dane Vikings siege Paris|
|850||Dane Vikings winter in England|
|860||Dane Vikings settle on Iceland|
|860||Rus Vikings attack Miklagård (Constantinople)|
|862||Rus Vikings establish kingdom in Holmgård (Novgorod)|
|865||The Great Heathen Army invade England|
|866||Dane Vikings establish kingdom in Jorvik (York)|
|879||Rus Vikings move capital from Holmgård to Kiyv, Kievan Rus is formaly established|
|886||Treaty establishes Danelaw|
|911||Hrolfr is given a part of the Frankish kingdom and establish Normandy|
|941||Rus Vikings raids Miklagård (Constantinople)|
|944||Rus Vikings raids Miklagård again, establish trade agreements|
|981||Eiríkur “Rauði” Þorvaldsson discovers Greenland|
|986||Eiríkur “Rauði” Þorvaldsson establish settlement and trading station in Greenland|
|986||Bjarni Herjólfsson discovers Vinland (Canada)|
|1000||Leifur “Heppni” Eiríksson and his sister Freydís Eiríksdóttir establishes settlement in Vinland (Canada)|
|1000||(c.) Scandinavian countries officially declared Christian (Roman Catholic)|
|1000||Oslo (Viken) established|
|1009||Dane Vikings attack London|
|1015||Dane Vikings abbandon settelement in Vinland|
|1016||Knútr “Ínn ríki” Sveinsson becomes king of England (1016), Denmark (1018) and Norway (1028)|
|1066||King Harold Godwinsson defeats Haraldr Harðraði at the battle of Stamford Bridge|
|1066||King Harold Godwinsson is defeated by Normandy Viking ruler William at the battle of Hastings|
|1103||Scandinavias first archbishop, in Lund|
|1219||June 15th at the battle of Lindanäs in Estonia the Danish flag is introduced. According to legend it fell from the sky into the hands of the King. It’s the first and oldest national flag in the world.|
|1242||Kievan Rus destroyed by Mongol invasion|
|1397||The Kalmar Union is established between Denmark, Norway and Sweden|
|1453||Varangian Guard dismantled by the Ottoman invasion|
|1523||The Kalmar Union collapses|
|1530||(c.) Scandinavian countries reformed to Lutheran Christianity|
|1658||Roskildefreden; Denmark forced to give Skåne, Halland, Blekinge, Öland and Gotland to Sweden|
|1728||Denmark claims Greenland and establish colony|
|1808||The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. As a result of the war, Finland which formed the eastern third of Sweden proper became the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within Imperial Russia.|
|1814||January 14th at the Treaty of Kiel, the king of Denmark-Norway ceded Norway to the king of Sweden. Denmark keeps Greenland, Faroe Islands and Iceland|
|1864||Denmark looses Slesvig-Holsten to Germany in a war|
|1873||The term “Viking Age” is invented|
|1876||Scenographer Carl Emil Doepler creates horned helmets for the first Bayreuther Festspiele production of Wagner’s “Der Ring des Nibelungen”|
|1917||Finland independent (from both Russia and Sweden)|
|1918||Even though Denmark was not parttaking in World War one, Germany is forced to give North Slesvig to Denmark, after loosing the war. The area is renamed to Sønderjylland|
|1940||Denmark and Norway occupied by Nazi Germany|
|1941||US occupy Greenland with permission from the Danish ambassador in USA. He has gone rogue, since the Danish government is under Nazi German control. Occupation ends in 1945, but one military base remain in Thule.|
|1945||End of World War 2, occupation of Denmark and Norway ends|
|1945||Denmark (incl. Greenland and Faroe Islands) and Norway joins United Nations|
|1946||Iceland and Sweden joins United Nations|
|1949||Denmark, Norway and Iceland becomes members of NATO|
|1955||Finland joins United Nations|
|1973||Denmark become EU member|
|1979||Greenland gained autonomy from Denmark, with some limitations. Leaves EU.|
|1995||Sweden and Finland become EU members|
|2023||Sweden and Finland applies for NATO membership|
|2025||Rus Vikings invade and reestablish Kievan Rus to end hostilities between Russia and Ukraine, and restore order. Vladimir Putin is beheaded in Kyiv.*|
|2026||From Kievan Rus the Varangians siege Miklagård and blood-eagle Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.*|